Essence of Biology 1 (Ruang Lingkup Biologi)

Posted: June 30, 2011 in Uncategorized

History of Biology Development

In the early  1600

1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek → invent single lens light microscope

In the 18th century

2. Edward Jenner (England) → the technique of vaccination against smallpox

3. Louis Pasteur (French) → bacteriology

4. Robert Koch (Germany) → the methode to propagate bacteria in laboratory

What is the Biology ???

Term of biology is derived from the Greek, bios : life, and logos : study.

So, biology defines as the scientific study of life and living organisms.

Scope of Biology

Object of Biological Study, such as :

1.Molecule → studies DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is involved in protein synthesis.
2.Cell → describes the strcture and function inside the cell of each part of cell and life process.
3.Tissue, Organ, and Organ System → explain of various kinds, characteristics and function.
4.Organism → includes networking and interrelationship among organ system, the survival of each organism to the environment, also the classification of organism and the naming of species.

↗two kingdoms → five kingdoms → six kingdoms → three domains

↗the naming of species is valid internationally and universally, it was developed by Carolus Linnaeus → binomial numenclature

5. Population : a group of individual of the same kind (that is the same species) occupying a given area.

6. Community : is the population of all species occupying the same area.

7. Ecosystem → a community and its phsical environment (such soil and water).

8. Biome → a large communities on earth which is classified based on the dominant plant community (vegetation).

↗ Knowledge of population, community, ecosystem and biome can be used to overcome the environmental problems.

Eg : booming of population, natural conservation and regional landscape.

Branches of Biology

1.Based on organism group : virology, mycology, bacteriology, botany, zoology, entomology, parasitology, ornitology
2.Based on organism hierarchy : biology molecular, anatomy, cytology, histology, organology, morphology, ekology
3.Based on aspect of life : philogeny, palaenthology, genetics, immunology, evolution
4.Based on its applicaton : biochemistry, biophysics, biogeography, agronomy, holticulture
Scientific Method
1.Starting a problem → what, why, how, or who ?
2.Preliminary study (collecting information)
3.Problem formulation
4.Hypothesis formation
5.Choosing method
6.Starting variable, data source and instrument
7.Collecting and analizing data
8.Conclusion
9.Publication

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