Archaebacteria dan Eubacteria

Posted: July 18, 2011 in Uncategorized

→ Used to be included in kingdom Monera

► Prokaryotic cell, it means that their nucleus do not have membrane-enclosed organelles cells.

Archaebacteria

Characteristic :

1.Having cell with non-pedtidoglikan cell wall,  cell membrane and RNA
2.They are found in extreme environment
Classification of Archaebacteria
™ Methanogens
1.Are obligate anaerobes that produce methane from hydrogene and carbon dioxide compounds
2.Inhabits oxygen-free environments (anaerobe obligate)
3.For examples are : Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina
™Halophiles
1.Inhabit saturated salt solutions
2.Halophiles use salt to make energy
3.For example is : Halobacterium halobium
™Thermoacidophiles

1. Are found in environment with high temperature and acid degree

2. For example is : Sulfolobus

EUBACTERIA
(soil bacteria and cyanobacteria)

™Bacteria

Structure of Bacteria

1.Outside Components
a.Cell wall → peptidoglikan. Its function for maintains its shape, protects its self, organizes the entry and out of compounds, and  provides division.
b.Capsule (slime layer) made of carbohydrate, nitrogen, or phospor. Its function for protection from dehydration and against phagocytes by other organisms and provides food supplies. → (gram + and gram –). ►
c.Cell membrane (composed of proteins and lipids). Its regulates substance transportation from outside to inside cell.

d. Flagellum

0. Atric bacteria, they do not have flagella

A.Monotric bacteria, they only have one flagellum
B.Lophotric bacteria, they have a number of flagella on one body end
C.Amphitric bacteria, they have flagella on both two body ends
D.Peritric bacteria, they have flagella covered all their body

e. Pili (fimbrie)  ►

→ are hundreds of smooth hair-like appendages on cell wall, the function is help bacteria adhere to another or attach to certain surfaces and  function as a channel to flow genetic material during conjugation

2. Inside Parts

™Cytoplasm (cytosol), containing a variety of molecules, such as salt, nutrition, and enzymes. Inside cytosol, there is a nucleid composed of single chromosome and DNA
™ Plasmid is located separately from nucleoid in cytosol ►
™ In an unfavorable condition, some type of bacteria form endospores
™ When the condition of environment has been suitable for growth, the endospores will germinate
™ Other surviving form for bacteria is cyst formation (a structure surrounded by thick and rigid envelope)
Sexual Reproduction
™Transformation

→ Transformasi adalah pemindahan sedikit materi genetik, bahkan satu gen saja dari satu sel bakteri ke sel bakteri yang lainnya

™ Transduction

→ Transduksi adalah pemindahan materi genetik satu sel bakteri ke sel bakteri lainnya dengan perantaraan organisme yang lain yaitu bakteriofage (virus bakteri)

™ Conjugation

→ Konjugasi adalah pemindahan materi genetik berupa plasmid secara langsung melalui kontak sel dengan membentuk struktur seperti jembatan diantara dua sel bakteri yang berdekatan. Umumnya terjadi pada bakteri gram negatif

Based on Oxygen Requirement

™Aerob bacteria respire using free oxygene from the air. For examples are : Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosomonas
™ Anaerob bacteria respire without using free oxygene from the air. For examples are : Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Escherichia and  Enterobacter
Based on the way of obtaining nutrition
™Heterotroph bacteria
1.Parasitic bacteria obtain their food from other living organism (host). Causes diseases, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.Saprophytic bacteria obtain their food from the remaining of dead organism, such as E. coli
™ Autotroph bacteria
1.Photoautotroph bacteria are bacteria that use the energy from sunlight to synthesis organic compounds. For example is Bacteriopurpurin
2.Chemoautotroph bacteria are bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic chemical substances. For examples are Nitrosococcus, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas
Cyanobacteria
1.(Greek, kyanos = blue, bacterion = bacillus).
2.Their color is caused by phycocyanin (blue) and chlorophyll (green) pigment.
3.All cyanobacteria are photoautotrops.
4.Some of cyanobacteria have yellow, brown, red, and black in color.
5.Cyanobacteria has bigger size than bacteria, they can be formed in uniselluler, coloni, or filament.
6.Their cell membrane is used to do photosinthesis.
7.They can reproduce by asexual reproduction through binary fission.
8.For example are : Nostoc, Anabaena, Gleocapsa, Oscillatoria, and Spirulina.
The Importance of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria in Our Life
™In Environment
1.Nitrogen Fixing Agent

► bacteria especially that live in soil will change free N → NH3 needed by plants, this bacteria activity can increase soil fertility. The examples of nitrogen fixing bacteria are : Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Clostridium; the examples of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are : Nostoc, Gleocapsa and Anabaena

2. Nitrification and Denitrification

►Nitrification bacteria is bacteria that can convert ammonia (NH3) in the soil to nitrat compound

a.Nitrite bacteria convert NH3 → NO2 (nitrite)
b.Nitrate bacteria convert NO2 → NO3 (nitrate)

►Denitrification is a nitrfication reverse process, it causes nitrogen consertration in the soil decrease

1.Pseudomonas, convert NO3 → NO2
2.Bacillus, convert NO2 → N

3. Sulphure Cycle

Such as Thiobacillus and Chromatium convert

H2S → H2SO4, so that it can be absorbed by plants

4. Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria involve in preserving the oxygen and nutrient availability in the ecosystem.

Cyanobacteria are producers in water ecosystem, while archaebacteria becomes producers in hot springs ecosystem

In Medical Field

1.E. coli bacteria help food digestion and supply the vitamin K ►
2.Can cause various disease (Table 2.3)
Producing antibiotic can use cure some disease (Table 2.4)

In Technology and Science Field

Bacterial plasmid can be inserted with gene forming insulin or human antibodies
In Agriculture, Industrial, and Food Field
1.Enhance soil fertility
2.Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris produce cheese from milk substances “
3.Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus produce yogurt from the fermentation of skim milk
4.Acetobacter and Acetomonas are used to form acetic acid glacial (CH3COOH)  “
5.Clostridium acetobutylicum is used to produce acetone and butane  “
6.Spirulina is used as single cell protein
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